Several years ago, a high school principal investigated why so many of her students were failing. After staff-wide research, the reason became clear: bad writing, an inability to turn thoughts into sentences, paragraphs and essays. A rigorous program of writing in every subject except math ensued, and within two years, final statewide exam scores rose 10 to 20 points.
Teachers began this new program by teaching a simple skill: how to turn ideas into simple sentences. When students could do that, they learned how put ideas into compound and complex sentences.
Students learned how to identify the main idea in a paragraph next, and then how to write a paragraph with a main idea. Once paragraphs were mastered, it was on to essays, learning how to develop an introduction and controlling idea (thesis) and how to write body paragraphs to back up that controlling idea. Students learned how to incorporate details into their writing, especially examples.
What students were taught was to think critically through structured writing—a point of view with facts to back it up. To do it well takes planning and organizing ideas. It is the kind of writing which the Common Core State Standards expects all high school students to master.
To find out more about this amazing success story at New Dorp High School in Staten Island, go to Peg Tyre’s article in The Atlantic. Though it was published five years ago, the story–and the method to improve thinking through structured writing–is just as relevant today. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/10/the-writing-revolution/309090/
“Scaffolding” is an educator term to describe teacher actions to help students learn something new. Scaffolding could be a series of questions meant to prepare students for what they are to read. Scaffolding could be a timeline of a topic—say American history—to show where a subtopic—say the Civil War—fits into the big picture.
Scaffolding can also be simple diagrams to help visual learners understand what they are about to read or write. These diagrams help students “see” the organization of a reading passage, or they help students “see” the structure of a paragraph or essay they are about to write, providing clarity.
For example, suppose a student needs to write a biography of Coretta Scott King. Maybe the student has written a list of ideas related to Mrs. King’s life, from her education to working with her husband on Civil Rights matters to promoting his legacy. But this brainstormed list seems to be without order. The student doesn’t know what goes with what or how to begin. How could a diagram help? Take a look.
This diagram is a simple visual pattern following Mrs. King’s life, more or less in chronological order. With a little help, the student might see that Mrs. King’s life was private until she married; then her life became public as she worked with her husband on civil rights matters; then her life became even more public after his death as she led efforts to honor him and she spoke and wrote about ongoing civil rights matters. These insights could provide transition ideas from one paragraph to another.
If each box of the diagram is outlined in a color which corresponds to a portion of Mrs. King’s life or activities, the overall organization of the essay becomes clear.
A student can make a diagram like this after he creates a prewriting organizer such as a mind web or a brainstormed list. Or this diagram can take the place of that prewriting organizer. Color-coding the information is important because it helps visual learners “see” how the essay breaks down into smaller chunks.
A similar diagram can be made by a teacher to preview what students are about to read. Whether it is Junie B. Jones’ fear of school buses or why polar bears face a bleak future, a diagram showing students what they will read before they read it allows them to see the big picture and each subtopic in the order in which they will read about it. For children with reading comprehension problems, a diagram can help them understand and remember what they read.