Most of my elementary and middle grade students write first drafts in pencil. A few type theirs into a computer. But when we revise–hard copies or electronic ones–we use colored pencils.
I ask students to circle verbs and verbals with one bright color, such as red. It’s easy to find verbs when they are encircled in a bright color. We list them, use tally marks to identify which ones are overused, and then go back to the copy to replace overused verbs or weak verbs.
Next I ask students to choose a different bright color, one that is easily distinguishable from the first color, such a violet, green or blue. Now the student encircles the first word of each sentence with that color. Because the color prominently displays the first words, those words are easy to spot. I ask students to read them aloud, listening for repetition. When we find the same word used frequently, the student rewrites the sentence beginning to add variety.
For older students, we look at those same sentence opening words and identify their parts of speech to see if the student is overusing one part of speech, such as adverbs, and under-using another part of speech, such as prepositions. If he is, he makes appropriate changes.
Some children overuse particular words, such as “so,” “just,” “then,” and “and.” If I notice this, I ask the student to choose another color and to circle the overused word. The abundance of color helps the student to recognize how frequently he has overused a word.
Revision might mean moving sentences or paragraphs around, or inserting new information missing from the first draft. That too can be identified with arrows and stars in bright colors.
For poor spellers, I either encircle misspelled words in a particular color or highlight them with a marker. From those words, I create a spelling study guide. At the next lesson I quiz the student on the misspelled words.
When students see a first draft spotted with color, cross-outs, X’s, erasures, arrows and inserted words, they know they have revised. So do parents without reading a word.