When students are expected to cite evidence from readings, beginning in late elementary grades, the problem of when and how to use paraphrasing and direct quotes arises, as well as how to combine the two seamlessly.
Let’s start with a story everyone knows, “The Three Little Pigs.” Suppose the version of the story being analyzed says,
The wolf walked up to the door of the first little pig. The wolf saw that the house was made of straw. Silly little pig, thought the wolf. I’ll have you for my dinner today. So the wolf knocked on the door and said, “Little pig, little pig, let me come in.”
Now suppose the student has taken the position that the wolf is a polite creature. The student needs to cite information from the article proving this point.
What I have observed is that most students equate the word “cite” with “use direct quotes.” To do that, students might quote the whole paragraph as their citation. (I see this all the time.) But that is not a good way to cite.
One good way is to cite by paraphrasing without ever using direct quotes. For example, to prove the wolf is polite, the student could write,
The wolf didn’t run to the door of the little pig living in the house of straw, but as the story says, he walked. Also, the wolf knocked at the door and asked in a normal tone of voice to be let in. In other words, the wolf behaved politely.
But suppose the student wants to quote the words, “Little pig, little pig, let me come in,” because they are so identified with the classic wording of the story. The student could have written most of the same citation as above, changing it this way.
The wolf didn’t run to the door of the little pig living in the house of straw, but as the story says, he walked. Also, the wolf knocked at the door and asked in a normal tone of voice to be let in, saying, “Little pig, little pig, let me come in.” In other words, the wolf behaved politely.
This too is a citation.
However, what I see is that students directly quote two or three sentences or a whole paragraph without connecting the quote to their own grammar. Both the students’ ideas and the direct quote stand alone in a paragraph with no transition from one to the other, and no attempt to shorten the quote to only a few key words. If there is a transition from their own words to the direct quote it is stilted or confusing.
Students need much practice paraphrasing without using direct quotes, and paraphrasing plus using direct quotes. This can be done using single paragraphs from fairy tales, songs, or news stories until students are comfortable with this kind of writing.