Citing evidence used to be a skill learned in high school, but with the Common Core State Standards, it has moved to middle grades. This is because of the Common Core’s emphasis on problem solving. But it is also because reading critically is an important life skill.
- Here is the standard for ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade literature reading: ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.1
“Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.”
- Here is the standard for seventh grade literature reading: ELA-Literacy.RL.7.1
“Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.” (The only difference between high school and middle school standards is the degree of reporting textual evidence.)
- Here is the standard for sixth, seventh and eighth grade social studies: ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.1 “Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.”
Middle school students I tutor need to be able to read a selection and answer a question based on the reading. The students are expected to cite two or more lines of evidence from the reading when they answer the question.
With practice, most are able to do it. But some students encounter problems, namely
- Using in their answers information they know is true but which is not given in the reading passage.
- Taking two sides of an argument when they are expected to choose only one.
- Citing not enough evidence to thoroughly support their answer.
- Citing evidence okay but not showing how the evidence supports the answer.
- Talking about the text in general without actually citing evidence.
- Writing evidence as direct quotes, without adapting it to the student’s sentence structure. This can include copying pronouns without identifying what they mean.
- Not paraphrasing.
How to overcome these problems?
- Emphasize the difference between a guess or hunch and evidence.
- Model the difference between strong and weak evidence.
- Make sure students can explain why evidence they choose supports their answer.
- Practice paraphrasing.
- Practice using nouns when pronouns are not clear.
- Practice, practice, practice.